STUDY MEASURES EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF HPV INFECTION

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More serious internal injury, but which do not appear to the naked eye, cause less impact
Genital warts caused by HPV (human papillomavirus) cause more impact on women than internal injuries caused by the same virus that does not appear to the naked eye, but are more serious. The conclusion is a study of 29 patients of the Santa Casa de São Paulo.

HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and affects about 630 million people worldwide.

There are two types of reaction to HPV: genital wart, low risk, and precancerous lesions and cancer, which are not visible, but are at high risk. The study shows that the worry and fear are feelings ‘champions’ when the diagnosis is revealed, followed by anger.

According to the gynecologist Adriana Campaner, coordinator of the study, the diagnosis of HPV cause discussions between the women and their companions. Among the evaluated 21% reported conflict with the partner linking the disease to infidelity and 10% broke their relationship because of it.

But according Campaner, this reaction is wrong because it is not possible to identify when a person has contracted the virus. “The demonstration of injuries can take years.” According to the gynecologist, 80% of women will be infected with HPV at least once in life. Also said that the hypothesis of a woman contracting the virus in a sexual relationship is 30% to 60%.

In 90% of cases, HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, but there are cases of people who have contracted the virus through contact with toilet, a damp towel, soap and even surgical material that has not been sanitized.

The condylomata may be treated by chemical or physical methods, to destroy the lesion. Have to treat precancerous lesion, it is necessary to have surgery to remove the lesion. Treatment for cancer of the cervix depends on the degree of impairment of the body.

“The ideal is to find pre-cancerous lesions before they develop into cancer ‘, warns the gynecologist. “But only one in a hundred women HPV progress to cancer.”

Preventing the disease includes the practice of safe sex, vaccination and regular examinations – like the Pap smear and routine gynecological care.

INTERNET ADDICTS HAVE A HIGHER RISK OF DEPRESSION

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Teens who spend 5-10 hours a day connected to the Internet lose interest in social interactions.
Teens who spend too much time on the Internet have almost 50 percent more likely to develop depression than moderate users, according to a Chinese study.

Researcher Lawrence Lam said that teens who spend 5-10 hours a day connected to the Internet have agitation when not at the computer and lose interest in social interactions.

“Some spend more than ten hours a day. They are really problematic users and demonstrate signs and symptoms of addictive behavior … to surf the Internet and play,” said Lam, co-author of the study published Tuesday in the journal Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

“They can not take the head of the Internet and they feel agitated if they do not come back after a short time,” he said by telephone psychologist.

“They do not want to see friends, do not want to participate in family gatherings, do not want to spend time with parents and siblings,” he added.

The study involved 1,041 adolescents aged 13 to 18 in Guangzhou, in southern China. None of them had depression at baseline. Nine months later, 84 had the disease, and those who spent too much time on the Internet were 50 percent more vulnerable than moderate users.

Lam, who worked in partnership with Zi-wen Peng at the University Sun Yat-sen in Guangzhou, said the lack of sleep and stress caused by online games can explain the downward trend.

“Anyone who spends too much time on the Internet loses sleep and is a well established fact that the less one sleeps, the higher the chances of depression,” said Lam.

According to the author, it was the first time a study examined pathological use of the Internet as a possible cause of depression.

An earlier study had pointed to depression as a possible causal factor for Internet addiction, and other studies have shown a correlation between both, but without clearly defining what was cause and what was the result.
Lam said that schools should be attentive to students who are addicted to the Internet to offer them treatment and guidance.

NEEDY WITH OVER 65 YEARS WILL BE IMMUNIZED FREE OF CHARGE IN HEALTH CENTERS.

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In previous years the vaccine had to be purchased at the pharmacy with a prescription.
By 2012 the poorest seniors will receive the free seasonal flu vaccine, which had never happened. The measure is presented today by Health Minister Ana Jorge, and is part of the vaccination campaign against influenza which starts on 1 October. The vaccines will be distributed through health centers.
As one progresses because the Ministry of Health reached agreement with GlaxoSmithKline laboratory to whom it bought the six million vaccines of influenza A. Thus, instead of receiving two million doses that were yet to come, Ana Jorge managed convert 660,000 of pandemic vaccines in 900,000 of the seasonal flu vaccine.

These come in three phases: 300 000 now, 300,000 in 2011 and the same amount in 2012. The beneficiaries are elderly people over 65 receiving solidarity supplement, and who also have access to medicines reimbursed at 100%, and most likely people who are living in nursing homes. All free form, unlike previous years where the vaccine had to be purchased at the pharmacy with a prescription.

In addition to saving money on stuff that most likely would never be used, taking into account the poor adhesion of the risk groups for influenza vaccine, Ana Jorge has here the ideal tool to increase vaccination coverage of seasonal flu.
The World Health Health wants this year vaccination coverage of seasonal flu in the elderly is 75%.

In 2008/2009, Portugal was far from this goal: only half of older, who are part of the risk group, took the vaccine.That winter, there was an excess of deaths of nearly two thousand people associated with seasonal flu. Mostly elderly with associated diseases.

Also part of the priority list of the chronically ill and immunocompromised, over 6 months of age, health care workers and other care providers such as nursing homes employees. These will need to have a prescription to buy the vaccine, as usual.

Despite this success of the negotiations, it should not forget that the initial order of the Ministry of Health of six million doses Portugal still has a million more to receive. Negotiations remains, as it became clear that the ministry of Ana Jorge has no interest in receiving them.

What incidentally, also it happened in other countries such as France, also in talks to set aside part of the initial order. Others, as did the United States, even just for destroying much of the vaccines bought by lack of validity.

The Ministry had managed to undo the coming two million doses at the beginning of the year. A savings of about 15 million, taking into account that only vaccines delivered are paid. Portugal still has vaccines in 1300 with another year of validity in stock to use and that they are paid. Neither the Ministry of Health, or GlaxoSmithKline wanted to respond to DN doubts.

WHY IS THE COFFEE, ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CAUSE BAD BREATH?

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A brief explanation of Rodrigo Cavaco Hazelnuts, dentist and clinical director at DentalConcept.
Coffee usually leaves dry mouth and this can be the main cause of bad breath, as well as “extras” we usually add, such as milk and sugar.

Sugar contributes to the growth of bacteria in the oral cavity and thus for the bad smell. Since milk is rich in sugar and proteins, which also leads to the creation of unpleasant odors by bacteria (lactose dissolve the protein, which causes a sulfur smell remains in the mouth).

Also those who consume alcohol frequently and excessively suffer from bad breath. Alcohol can cause health problems and halitosis can be a sign of ill effects of alcohol on the digestive tract.

The accumulation of bacteria in the oral cavity in contact with food, producing volatile sulfur compounds very strong odor. In general: the amount of these bacteria is controlled by our saliva, which contributes to the hygiene of the oral cavity. When saliva is decreased, the proliferation of bacteria increases.

Tobacco also causes halitosis since it leaves particles of the various components of the smoke in the throat and lungs. This scent remains for hours in the lungs and therefore whenever expires when speaking, is transmitted odor that is socially unacceptable.

IT IS NORMAL TO BE WITH THE ARM DORMANT FOR A WHOLE DAY?

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It happens to many people but the minority tends to underestimate the problem. Learn what causes the situation and see what should you do to treat

Numbness of the upper limb can be caused by compression of the peripheral nerves of this member, by an injury to a cervical root (e.g., disc herniation) or a spinal cord injury or brain (e.g. stroke or inflammatory lesion ). “If dormancy is transient and reaches only one region is more likely to be caused by nerve transient compression (for example, when dozed on an area of ​​the body or crossed legs extended form)”, refers Paula Sousa, medical neurologist in the Neurological Senior Campus of Torres Vedras.

‘In this case, it is a benign condition and duration can be very variable, from minutes to a few days, “says yet. If the dormancy involve any member also reaches the bottom member and / or the face and lasts for several days or even weeks, it is advisable to be seen by a doctor. “Depending on the outcome of the neurological examination, it may be necessary to perform a complementary diagnostic test (electromyography, TAC or even an MRI) to clarify the cause of the numbness,” adds the expert.

BIOSIMILARS ARE THE DRUGS OF THE FUTURE

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Arose from the need to copy drugs made from living cells. A biotechnology magic able to help more patients and save money. Know how to

Imagine a medicine factory made to your needs, tailored to your needs and available when needed. You might not know but this plant exists. “Our body produces drugs all the time, enzymes, hormones, antibodies to fight infections and regulate all sorts of imbalances that may occur,” reveals the rheumatologist and researcher at the Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Eurico Fonseca. Science always dreamed mimic this capability, but only a few years ago is that there came near with the creation of biological medicinal products.

Contrary to what happens with the ordinary drugs, manufactured from laboratory chemical synthesis, biological medicines are produced from living cells, using biotechnology techniques. “We put the DNA of a protein of interest in manufacturing within the cell and when it replicates it does so with the change that introduced you,” says the researcher. Introduced in 1999 in the market, biological drugs are a major advance in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and malignancies.

One of its main features is that they are unique. It is impossible to be an equal to the other. “This is because the cells are not static entities but living organisms that go adapting and producing changes. These changes vary from cell to cell and in the same cell over time, which makes the process of manufacture of medicinal products made with cells very complex, expensive and difficult “, John explains Eurico Fonseca.

Each manufacturer has their cell lines, and develops its processes. To get an idea, the production of these drugs is so complex that “there are manufacturers who do not stir in manufacturing lines for years to avoid the risk of altering the conditions under which medicines are made,” explained the doctor to prevent.

Copy impossible

Do generic biologic drugs is impossible. “Generics are perfect copies of drugs that mimic, and as organic are unique, it is impossible to guarantee the same qualitative composition in active substances and the same pharmaceutical form,” says the expert. In addition, biological drugs have secured trade secret indefinitely, which prevents other companies to have access to manufacturing instructions, even after the patent fall.

“It’s like seeing a picture of a Boeing and wanting to make an equal plane without instructions or eat a fantastic plate and try to do the same at home without having the recipe,” she explains. That’s what scientists have made creating biosimilars. Not being exactly alike are sufficiently identical to have similar therapeutic effects.

The many advantages

“Since 2006 they have been safely used in the EU and in the coming decades many more patents for biologic drugs will expire and biosimilar versions can be manufactured at lower cost,” says João Eurico Fonseca. Because it is difficult to ensure the same efficacy, the tests that need to undergo are far greater in number and more demanding than the generic and the pharmacovigilance is tighter.

The approval process is managed by the European Medicines Agency and the Infarmed, you have to undergo clinical trials to verify the efficacy and safety and is required to make up a register of patients who are in therapy with these drugs. There are four approved biosimilars in Europe and six in test phase.

Only available for few patients

Although futuristic, biological drugs and biosimilars will not replace conventional medicine in the future. Because of its composition and high molecular size, biological drugs and biosimilars are more likely to be recognized by the body as foreign and therefore a greater potential to cause unwanted immune responses. “Only about 10 percent of patients are indicated for biological medication. The idea is not to generalize them because the side effects require greater caution.

The use of biological has an associated increased risk of infection, and the reactivation of tuberculosis infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin. They are usually prescribed to patients who no longer respond to conventional medication, “explains João Eurico Fonseca. Another feature of biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars is not being curative. The effect is only symptomatic. “Improve symptoms and prevent disease progression, but does not cure”, highlights the expert.

“These act by inhibiting the disease process only while they are being used,” he added further. The exception goes to the oncology drugs that “are combined with surgery and chemotherapy, and in many cases, there is a therapeutic remission,” says João Eurico Fonseca.

What characterizes biosimilars:

– Are produced from living cells.

– Are unique. There is no one equal to another.

– Not cured but symptoms and inhibiting the progression of disease.

– Are subject to further tests than conventional drugs

Biosimilars already available in Portugal

The biosimilar drugs available Portugal in the mid 2015 are Infliximab (to treat, for example, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis and aniquilosante spondylitis), erythropoietin (to treat anemia associated with renal disease) , the growth factor of granulocyte (used in oncology) and growth hormone used to treat growth disorders.

THE BEST SOLUTION TO STOP SNORING?

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The problem may have more than one source and does not affect only those who suffer it. An otolaryngologist explains what can be done to stop the situation

People who snore regularly may develop cognitive disorders and even suffer from very early Alzheimer’s disease that would be normal, according to a US study published in the second quarter of 2015, entitled ‘cohort ADNI (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). ” Many do not realize that they do during sleep, which hinders the perception of the problem. But what will then be the best solution to stop snoring and prevent this and other diseases? “It depends on what is in its origin ‘, begins to answer Joana Melo Pires, otolaryngologist in the ENT Clinic Dr. Eurico de Almeida, in Porto.

“First, you must make a clinical assessment of the patient and conducting a study of a night’s sleep (polysomnography) to ascertain the severity of snoring and apnea. After analysis, the treatment may consist of weight loss in patients with excess weight, or, in severe situations, the use of a machine that introduces air at a positive pressure Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) “, also known as CPAP ‘that can be used for life in order to correct the breathing stops during sleep “, explains the expert.

“Patients with anatomical changes that trigger or aggravate this type of pathology (simple snoring or mild and occasionally moderate apnea) should undergo surgery” even recommends Joana Melo Pires. According to the study “cohort ADNI (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative)», people who snore may suffer from cognitive disorders «12 years earlier” than individuals who do not. An investigation of the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, USA, 2013, associates snoring the inner walls of the carotid arteries thicker than usual.

According to this study, which examined data from 913 patients between 18 and 50 years, none of whom suffered from sleep apnea, adults who snore are more at risk of being able to suffer from heart problems. In mid-2013, a British research published in the British Medical Journal came to defend people singing snore less. After observing 93 people, the scientists concluded that this action strengthens the muscles of the throat. These same experts have developed a plan of daily 20-minute workout, running for three months for the patients involved in the initiative.

TAKE CARE OF YOUR PERINEUM?

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This body is sensitive to all the events of life, especially in pregnancy. Find out what is the best way to preserve and also how to restore

It has a feeling of heaviness in the vagina, as if an egg inside, especially in the evening? Feels out of place cap and vulvar pain before, during or after sexual intercourse? Has difficulty retaining urine when coughing, laughing, running or hear water running? Will more than six times to the toilet to urinate? He has arrested intestine or feel like you have something to obstruct or that is incomplete? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then it is a sign that your perineum is not working well.

Carina Portugal, physiotherapist, a specialist in urogynecology, warns that “currently there are very effective therapeutic solutions to treat any dysfunction, and, as with everything, the earlier the treatment the better the results.” This professional here leaves the solutions for a healthy perineum. Learn now to protect your own!

What is and what the role of the perineum?

The perineum is a small muscle group but has very important functions for our welfare and that directly affect quality of life. The perineum is responsible for sphincter control. Controls when urinamos or excrete helps to maintain proper anatomical position of the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, vagina and rectum), directly influences the sexual function and also plays an important role in maintaining good posture.

Where is the perineum?

The perineum or pelvic floor is a localized set of muscles and fascia inside the pelvic region. Myofascial forms a bridge between the pubis and coccyx passing just below the bladder, uterus and rectum. When we contract this muscle group should feel the anus, the vagina and the urethra to tighten and lift.

How can you ensure that the perineum works well?

To maintain this healthy region should be avoided weakening these muscles. Even without risk factors is important to exercise this muscle group regularly to prevent future problems (e.g. incontinence, prolapse of pelvic organs known to sagging bladder) and moreover, improve flexibility, strength and endurance of the muscle group improving his performance in daily and sexual function.

Facilitates labor?

For the same reason potentiate the contractions of the vagina, the perineum is important in childbirth. But in the case of pregnant women, the belly weight can end up weakening the region. This makes many suffer from leakage of urine or even lack of contractions. It is common for mothers attend courses that stimulate the strengthening of muscle during pregnancy.

And when it comes to incontinence, we can control it?

It is recognized by the International Continence Society, made up of doctors, nurses and physiotherapists from all over the world, performing exercises of the pelvic floor muscles and behavioral therapy (which is the education of the situations of everyday life that impair the pelvic health) They are the first line of intervention in case of urinary incontinence. There are three types of incontinence:

– Urinary incontinence (when we cough, laugh, sneeze, jump)

– Urge urinary incontinence (when there is an urge to urinate that can not stop without the bladder is effectively full)

– A mixed urinary incontinence (a combination of the two)

In either type is important to conduct training of the perineal muscles, and how many scientific studies have shown, the rehabilitation of the perineal muscles is effective to cure the patients.

Risk factors for disorders of the perineum

Aging and obesity are on the list but are far from the only ones. These are some of the situations that can lead to problems:

– Pregnancy

The increase in weight of the growing uterus (baby, amniotic fluid and the placenta) on the pelvic floor, together with hormonal and postural changes, will weaken the perineum muscles. There are many pregnant women who develop urinary incontinence and perineal pain during pregnancy.

– Childbirth

It is the biggest risk factor for pelvic floor dysfunction, which may cause laceration of the mucosa, nerve compression, stretching and injury of the muscles, ligaments and fascia.

– Constipation

The constant hiperpressivas maneuvers to try to expel the stool with the perineum in relaxation will facilitate damage to the suspensory ligaments of the organs.

 – Chronic cough

Pressures listed in the abdominal contents on the perineum. In a study it was revealed that activities such as coughing impose more pressure vaginal level than pick up 10 kilos.

– Heavy work or recreational activities

Activities involving pick up weights, or very intense physical exercise and / or much impact (for example, running or jumping). Elite athletes often deal with pelvic dysfunction.

– Menopause

Hormonal changes will lead to changes in the quality of collagen, affecting the ligaments supporting the bladder, uterus and rectum, making them more lax. Often it is this age group that begin to appear symptoms of the problems that have developed over the years.

THE USE OF LESS ESTROGEN IS TO MAKE TAKING THE SAFEST PILL?

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The benefit / risk of this anticoncecional continues to be called into question. A family planning expert answers the questions that most concern women

There are a variety of pills on the market and, in recent years, the amount of estrogen in combined hormonal contraceptives has been reduced, “which improves the safety and tolerance pill”, assures Isabel Martins, doctor of obstetrics and gynecology and an expert on family planning. In the document “Consensus on Contraception”, published in 2011, reads that “most women who use contraception is healthy, so all contraceptive methods can be used without restrictions.” Incidentally, for Isabel Martins, family planning specialist, “the combined hormonal contraception, in addition to preventing unwanted pregnancies, has several non-contraceptive benefits.”

Naturally, to reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancy, these anticoncecionais prevent ovulation. Improve acne, decrease the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer colonretal and reduce the pains associated with menstruation (dysmenorrhoea), regulate the cycle and reduces blood flow. According to Isabel Martins, “the woman’s desire” is the determining factor in counseling right contraceptive method. This is what a woman is seeking from anticoncecional.

But that does not mean we can pick a pill alone let alone make then a self-management of it. Rather, we must see a doctor to recommend the most appropriate contraceptive method. This personalized medical advice is based on the following eligibility criteria, including the woman’s age, their lifestyle habits (such as smoking), health status, disease already diagnosed and ongoing treatments and / or usual.

Risks and side effects

The gynecological and obstetric history of the woman should also be evaluated and taken into account. The goal is to outwit potential contraindications for, as warns the Consensus on Contraception, there are certain ‘medical conditions in which the use of some contraceptives is likely to increase the health risks. ” Diseases such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure are some of the factors associated with the risk of thromboembolic complications (formation of clots in the veins). A woman suffering from these conditions should consult your doctor if you can take some anticoncecional.

According to a report by the Portuguese Society of Contraception and the Portuguese Society of Gynecology per year worldwide, about 12-20 women users of low-dose pills, in every 100,000 suffer a venous thromboembolism. This is a serious consequence, but rare, the use of combined hormonal contraceptives. And although the incidence of this effect make sound alarms in society, the medical profession does not recommend the suspension of the use of the pill.

More contraception

If do not want to have any more children or do not want to have children, you can also opt for these anticoncecionais:

– Copper IUD

This intrauterine device “maintains the regularity of the characteristic cycle of the woman, but increases the menstrual fl ow,” explains Isabel Martins.

– Medicated IUD

Is based on the progesterone hormone, “which can be seen as an advantage, because the woman can fi car in amenorrhea during this period”, says the expert. It is recommended as therapy for women suffering from vaginal bleeding and abundant history of anemia.

– Deploy

“There is a bad cycle control, ‘says Isabel Martins. Both can occur amenorrhea, as continued bleeding, or women have spotting daily.

The most appropriate contraception for you

Before starting any type of anticoncecional, you should talk to your doctor or gynecologist. Each woman has a different body, so it should not be guided by pill that her friends take. See the three suggestions Isabel Martins, doctor of obstetrics and gynecology and specialist in family planning:

1. If you want just the regular period, “the contraceptive methods combined are ideal and has three routes of administration, oral (pill), vaginal (vaginal ring) and transdermal (patch)”, explains the gynecologist. While the former requires that the user take the pill everyday, the vaginal ring is applied monthly and weekly adhesive.

2. If you do not want to get pregnant in the coming years, because it already has sons or because being a mother is not in their plans, “both the implant and the IUD are good options and fertility returns to normal after the method of removal,” assures Isabel Martins . The effectiveness of these methods and fi ‘does not depend on the user’ stresses, however, the doctor.

3. During breastfeeding, the expert recommends “the only progestogen pills”, also indicated for women over 35 or smokers (over 15 cigarettes per day).

The pill has a long-standing partner

The condom was considered the primary contraceptive method until 1960, when the pill (hormonal contraception) was invented. Still, it’s the best way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. If it is not traditionally adept this means of contraception, discover the three councils that will make you go to like condoms.

THE SMS STANCE

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Currently witnessing a growing and obsessive use of mobile phones, tablets and other mobile devices by teenagers and even children, which led to the emergence of a clinical disorder called “SMS posture”, we can consider a READ.

An Injury Repetitive Strain or simply RSI, is an injury caused by the performance of a repetitive and continuous activity normally associated with professional performance.

Lose track of time, do not eat or sleep properly, have feelings of anger, tension or depression are some of the common characteristics of excessive Internet use. This phenomenon associated with the wrong attitude adopted by those who spend a lot of time sending messages on social networks (or anti-social since our youth lost track of classroom interaction), to check emails etc., would create additional burdens on pressure exerted on the cervical spine.

Anatomically, our spine is divided into four regions (cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacrococcygeal) with alternating physiological curvature having the function of increasing the flexibility and ability to absorb shocks maintain adequate stability of intervertebral joints.

The cervical spine maintains about 10% of our body weight and protects the vital organs (spinal cord and medulla oblongata). The spinal cord is inside the spine and is responsible for communication between the brain through the nervous impulses with our body, allowing the control and coordination of muscle activity.

The “SMS position” causes an excessive stretching of the posterior neck tissues allowing the intervertebral disc is pushed back, which can lead to the appearance of slipped discs, while the shortening of the preceding tissues of the neck and thorax can reduce lung capacity .

Since we can not separate body and mind and all our structures are related to each other, incorrect posture induces joint lesional chains, since our body adapts to maintain balance.

It is even more worrying postural this new trend, in that the curvatures of the cervical and lumbar spine, called lordosis, are secondary curvatures that develop when acquired upright posture.

Remember this when thinking about giving a toy to a young child … that is not a phone or computer (even pretend). Instead remember that physical activity and healthy emotional relationships are essential to growth and development in harmony of our body and mind.

New technologies are essential to our way of life, however, we must encourage our children and young people to moderate the use of cell phones, practicing physical activities beneficial to good posture, such as swimming, yoga and Pilates.

We should not relativize if they have complaints such as pain in the neck and / or back, headache, difficulty sleeping, irritability, pain and tingling sensation in the upper limbs, or any other symptom that appears inexplicably protecting them well for future injuries that may lead to premature wear, and degeneration.